Citrus has been cultivated in China for 4,000 years. In the process of citrus planting, there are many excellent citrus varieties. Propagation of citrus through grafting is a quality and quantity propagation method. So, when is it better to graft oranges? How to graft citrus? Today the old farmer took everyone to find out.
When is it better to graft citrus?
Grafting of citrus trees can be performed in spring, summer, and autumn, and autumn is suitable, and the survival rate is generally above 90%.
How to graft citrus?
When grafting, first treat the rootstock and then cut the buds. Adopt "T" shaped bud grafting, first cut the "T" mouth on the rootstock 3 to 5 cm from the ground. The depth is suitable to see the xylem and can peel the root bark of the rootstock; Shield-shaped petioles are quickly embedded. The soil was then cultivated 10 cm high. After 10-15 days, plan the soil and check the survival. If the buds are light green in color and the petioles fall off at the touch, it means that they have survived. Otherwise, they should be reconnected behind the rootstock.
After the sprouts are managed, the sprouts are managed, and after the next spring, they are cut off at 18-20 cm above the sprouts, and the ties are untied. Pruning is carried out 3 to 4 times in summer, and the branches from the rootstock are cut off. When the new shoot grows to 8-10 cm, it is tied to a live pile near the base; when it reaches 20-25 cm, it is tied to the upper end again. Until the graft is lignified, the live piles are cut off, and they can continue to be cultivated in the field.
There are five main reasons that affect the low survival rate of grafting of citrus seedlings:
1. The rootstock lacks moisture and affects survival. Some rootstocks, due to drought, absorb less water and have insufficient sap, and some rootstocks have insufficient nutrients and are too weak to grow easily after grafting, or there is little water, and the joints at the rootstock do not get sufficient water supply. Layers are less likely to produce new healing tissue and cause scion death.
2. Scion metamorphic to death, affecting survival. During the storage or transportation of the scion, due to improper storage methods or too long time, it is easy to cause the scion to dehydrate, dry, and rot, which will cause the scion to lose its ability to heal.
3. Choosing the weather is actually choosing the temperature and humidity. On sunny days, the temperature is high and stable, which is conducive to survival. Generally, the average daily temperature of 15-25 ° C is more suitable for cell division activities. Temperatures above 32 ° C often cause damage. When it exceeds 40 ° C, it will cause tissue death. The temperature decreases on rainy days, the humidity is too high, and the scion tends to rot.
4. Immature grafting technology affects survival. If the scion of the scion is uneven, too deep or too shallow, the scion of the scion and the rootstock is not clean, the formation layer of the scion and the rootstock is not allowed to be connected, the scion is too few, the surface is not tight, the film strips are not tightly bundled, and the film is removed Early waiting will reduce graft survival.
5. The affinity between the anvil and the ear affects survival. If grapefruit is incompatible with tangerine and orange, it is hard-wired into a plant, and it is impossible to grow into a good plant.
In view of the above reasons, the following measures are recommended to improve the survival rate:
1. Choose grafting in fine weather. Before grafting, pay close attention to the weather forecast, grasp the weather trend, and observe the local weather changes. If it is rainy, the soil is too wet after the rain, foggy low temperature and even sunny high temperature weather, it is not suitable to graft. In case of drought during grafting, permeable irrigation should be carried out 2-3 days in advance, and weak seedlings should be fertilized half a month in advance to improve the nutritional level of the seedlings to facilitate grafting survival. However, it is not advisable to irrigate water after the grafting, let alone add fertilizer.
2. Keep scion fresh. The scion is collected in situ. Because the scion following picking and picking is fresh, more nutritious, and has strong vitality, the survival rate is high. If you need to buy scion from other places, scion that can't be used up immediately can be laminated with moist and clean river sand or stone flower. The humidity of the river sand is drawn out by hand, and it is advisable to stick the sand on the hand and not the sand on the nails. It is too dry if it is not sandy, and it is too wet if it is sandy. The humidity of the stone flower should not be dripping.
3. Master the basic skills of grafting. Grafting includes a full set of techniques, such as sharpening, bud cutting, anvil opening, inlay budding, and strapping. Each link is directly related to the success or failure of grafting. It must be strictly controlled. The scion is cut flat and the layers are aligned correctly. The film is tightly closed and tightly bound. The better the basic skills of grafting and the more skilled the technique, the higher the survival rate of grafting.
4, timely release grafting thin touch. The citrus seedlings grafted in the autumn should be released in early spring, and the above part of the scion on the rootstock should be cut off so that the citrus grafted seedlings can be drawn early. For citrus seedlings grafted in late autumn, due to the poor formation of callus at the anvil-head junction, the nutrients needed for the growth of the scion cannot be effectively supplied, such as releasing the film too early in spring, or removing the grafting film under high temperature drying conditions. It often results in the death of large numbers of surviving scion. Therefore, citrus seedlings grafted in late autumn should be weeded, fertilized, and irrigated when the scion begins to germinate, and then the film of the scion is released, which is conducive to the germination of the scion and the growth of new shoots.
Citrus grafting is also an important agricultural operation because it can greatly increase economic value. At present, the commonly used grafting methods are mainly flat saw rootstocks, oblique cutting scion, and splicing and bandaging.
When is it better to graft citrus? How to graft citrus? Hear about the experience of old farmers